HIV and drug abuse are serious inter-related health problems around the world. Recent estimates indicate that there are 16 million people who inject drugs (PWID) throughout 148 counties, among which three million (range 0·8—6·6 million) are living with HIV. In most countries, the prevalence of HIV among PWID is higher compared to the general population due injection-related and sexual risk behaviors associated with drug use. Despite increased HIV risk among PWID, harm reduction and HIV prevention programs among this group are limited, especially in resource-constrained countries.

Supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the consultative meeting on “Optimal Models of Care for People who Inject Drugs” was organized to identify best practices and models of care that provide comprehensive, evidence-based interventions, promote successful linkage to HIV testing, care and treatment, and integrate collaborative TB and HIV services for people who inject drugs. Recommendations from this meeting are intended to inform the World Health Organization’s (WHO) 2014 consolidated treatment guidelines for key populations (KP).

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